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Use of Biometric Data in research activity. The solution adopted by the Arcadian Project



Giovanni Maria Riccio, Fabiola Iraci Gambazza, Paolo Gentili; Adriana Peduto, Ginevra Munafò



1. Introduction

2. General framework of biometric data in the GDPR

3. Data Protection Authorities’ provisions on biometrics

4. Biometric data within the Artificial Intelligence Act

5. Biometric data within the Arcadian-IoT Project;

5.1. The Arcadian-IoT Project and its legal framework;

5.2. Using AI technologies for individual facial recognition purposes;

5.3. The use of drones in the Arcadian-IoT Project

6. Conclusions



1. Introduction

In the complex and fragmented spectrum of personal data protection, biometric data represent one of the most challenging issues. On one hand, because, as will be discussed below, they represent data that allow for precise and unique identification of individuals. On the other hand, because they offer vast opportunities in many sectors, including in relation to the recognition of minors (and their protection) for accessing internet services. There is another aspect that raises concerns, namely the use of biometric data for the purpose of citizens’ recognition by public authorities. Dystopian scenarios that link the needs of public security with the legitimate expectations of individuals not to be constantly monitored in their movements in public spaces. This paper aims at investigating the regulations regarding biometrics in the General Data Protection Regulation (EU Regulation No. 2016/679 – GDPR), and then analysing the rules of the AI Act (in the currently available version, the text of which is not yet finalised). These rules have been applied in the compliance activities within the Arcadian project, funded under the Horizon2020 measure of the European Commission: the legal activity carried out has allowed, in particular, to examine the rules on biometrics and personal data applied to the research project pilots and the guidelines provided in this context.



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